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# Bit Error Probability 16qam

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The SER calculations can be extended to the 32QAM constellation (36QAM minus 4 corner points) that you are interested in; BER is messier. –Dilip Sarwate May 14 '14 at 2:55 | Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. could you help me? Here they are shown as separate just to be clearer. have a peek at these guys

Copyright © 2007–2013No content on this site may be reused in any fashion without written permission from http://www.dspLog.com. Reply Krishna Sankar January 9, 2013 at 5:29 am @Himanshu: That looks like a good link. Es/No Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) Modulation In Binary Phase Shift Keying, the symbols are used for transmitting information. Its chosen in a way such that adjacent constellation symbols differ by one one bit (and that called Gray coding)

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However, for reasonably high value of , the chances of such events are negligible. Probability Of Error For 16 Qam Although this example does not use a loop, the 'cont' mode is used for the purpose of illustrating how to compensate for the delay in this decoding operation.traceBack = 16; % Simulate the system.

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The syntax for the vitdec function instructs it to use hard decisions. Thank you so much for this great work ^_^
I have a question about the n noise :
n = 1/sqrt(2)*[randn(1,N) + j*randn(1,N)]; 0 dB variance
if I Can u suggest the modifications required. 16 Qam Constellation Matlab Code Can observe that for low values, the theoretical results seem to be ‘pessimistic' ‘optimistic' compared to the simulated results.

Retrieved April 17, 2005. 5. A Gray coded bit-assignment is also given. You can ask your queries in the comments section Reply atif February 28, 2010 at 5:40 pm please help me in 16 qam modulation.any one send me the matlab code news I wonder how to change the code you wrote for 64 QAM SER to 64QAM BER ?

It depends of course on the number of symbols $M$ as well as on the energy per bit $E_b$. A later step in this example will plot the constellation diagram.To learn more about modulation functions, see Digital Modulation. Consider the symbol in the corner, for example The conditional probability distribution function (PDF) of given was transmitted is: . doing equalization at each hop might be better.